Coherence Therapy


The art & science of lasting change




Studies demonstrating that
to induce deconsolidation/reconsolidation,
a mismatch or prediction error experience is required
in addition to reactivation of the target learning


Full references are listed below the table. Researchers' early conclusion that memory deconsolidation and reconsolidation are induced by memory reactivation alone has been shown by these studies to be incorrect.

Last updated:  23 May 2017
Short URL for this page:  http://bit.ly/2b8IbJH

 

Year
Authors
Species
Memory Type
Design and Findings
2004 Pedreira et al. Crab Contextual fear memory Learned fear response can be erased by chemical blockade (bicuculline and cycloheximide) only after memory reactivation is accompanied by memory mismatch experience (prediction error).
 
2005 Frenkel et al. Crab Contextual fear memory New experience modifies memory expression only if preceded by a memory mismatch experience.
 
2005 Galluccio Human Operant conditioning Reactivated memory is erased by new learning only if a novel contingency is also experienced.
 
2005 Rodriguez-
Ortiz et al.
Rat Taste recognition memory Novel taste following reactivation allows memory disruption by anisomycin.
 
2006 Morris et al. Rat Spatial memory of escape from danger Reactivation allows disruption of original memory by anisomycin only if learned safe position has been changed, creating mismatch of expectation.
 
2006 Rossato et al. Rat Spatial memory of escape from danger Reactivation allows disruption of original memory by anisomycin only if learned safe position has been changed, creating mismatch of expectation.
 
2007 Forcato et al. Human Declarative memory Memory of syllable pairings learned visually is destabilized and impaired by new learning only if, after reactivation by presentation of context, presentation of a syllable to be paired does not occur as expected, creating mismatch.
 
2007 Rossato et al. Rat Object recognition memory Memory is disrupted by anisomycin only if reactivated in presence of novel object.
 
2008 Rodriguez-
Ortiz et al.
Rat Spatial memory of escape from danger Reactivation allows disruption of original memory by anisomycin only if learned safe position has been changed, creating mismatch of expectation.
 
2009 Forcato et al. Human Declarative memory Memory of syllable pairings learned visually is destabilized and lost only if, after reactivation, the expected opportunity to match syllables does not occur, creating mismatch.
 
2009 Perez-Cuesta & Maldonado Crab Contextual fear memory Reactivated learned expectation of visual threat must be sharply disconfirmed for memory to be erased by cycloheximide.
 
2009 Winters et al. Rat Object recognition memory Memory is erased by MK-801 only if reactivated in presence of novel contextual features.
 
2010 Forcato et al. Human Declarative memory Memory of syllable pairings learned visually destabilizes and incorporates new information only if, after reactivation, the expected opportunity to match syllables does not occur, creating mismatch.
 
2011 Coccoz et al. Human Declarative memory Memory of syllable pairings learned visually destabilizes, allowing a mild stressor to strengthen memory, only if, after reactivation, the expected opportunity to match syllables does not occur, creating mismatch.
 
2012 Caffaro et al. Crab Contextual fear memory New experience modifies memory expression only if preceded by a memory mismatch experience.
 
2012 Sevenster et al. Human Associative fear memory (classical conditioning)
 
Reactivated fear memory is erased by propranolol only if prediction error is also experienced.
 
2013 Balderas et al. Rat Object recognition memory Only if memory updating is required does reactivation trigger memory destabilization and reconsolidation, allowing memory disruption by anisomycin.
 
2013 Barreiro et al. Crab Contextual fear memory Only if memory reactivation is followed by unexpected, mismatching experience is the memory eliminated by glutamate antagonist.
 
2013 Díaz-Mataix et al. Rat Associative fear memory (classical conditioning)
 
Reactivated fear memory is erased by anisomycin only if prediction error is also experienced.
 
2013 Reichelt et al. Rat Goal-tracking memory Target memory reactivated with prediction error was destabilized and then disrupted by MK-801, but not if brain's prediction error signal was blocked.
 
2013 Sevenster et al. Human Associative fear memory (classical conditioning) Reactivated fear memory is erased by propranolol only if prediction-error-driven relearning is also experienced.
 
2014 Exton-McGuinness et al. Rat Instrumental memory (operant conditioning) Memory for lever pressing for sucrose pellet was disrupted and erased by MK-801 only if the reinforcement schedule during reactivation was changed from fixed to variable ratio, creating prediction error.
 
2014 Sevenster et al. Human Associative fear memory (classical conditioning) Reactivated fear memory is disrupted and erased by propranolol only if prediction-error-driven relearning is also experienced.
 
2015 Alfei et al. Rats Contextual fear memory Reactivated fear memory is disrupted and erased by midazolam only if reactivation conditions involve prediction error (a temporal prediction error in this study).
 
2015 Jarome et al. Rats Contextual fear memory Reactivated fear memory is disrupted and erased by a protein synthesis blocker only if reactivation conditions include a novel contextual feature (mismatch/prediction error).
 
2016 Forcato et al. Human Declarative memory Recall of memorized items is impaired, revealing destabilization, only when a memory mismatch (prediction error) accompanies reactivation.
 
2016 López et al. Crab Contextual fear memory Learned fear response can be erased by chemical blockade (bicuculline and cycloheximide) only after memory reactivation is accompanied by prediction error.
 



Alfei, J. M., Ferrer Monti, R. I., Molina, V. A., Bueno, A.M., Urcelay, G.P. (2015). Prediction error and trace dominance determine the fate of fear memories after post-training manipulations. Learning & Memory, 22, 385-400. doi: 10.1101/lm.038513.115

Balderas, I., Rodriguez-Ortiz, C. J., & Bermudez-Rattoni, F. (2013). Retrieval and reconsolidation of object recognition memory are independent processes in the perirhinal cortex. Neuroscience, 253, 398-405. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2013.09.001

Barreiro, K. A, Suárez, L. D., Lynch, V. M., Molina, V. A., & Delorenzi, A. (2013). Memory expression is independent of memory labilization/reconsolidation. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 106, 283-91. doi: 10.1016/j.nlm.2013.10.006

Caffaro, P. A., Suarez, L. D., Blake, M. G., & Delorenzi, A. (2012). Dissociation between memory reactivation and its behavioral expression: scopolamine interferes with memory expression without disrupting long-term storage. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 98, 235-245. doi: 10.1016/j.nlm.2012.08.003

Coccoz, V., Maldonado, H., & Delorenzi, A. (2011). The enhancement of reconsolidation with a naturalistic mild stressor improves the expression of a declarative memory in humans. Neuroscience, 185, 61-72. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.04.023

Díaz-Mataix, L., Ruiz Martinez, R. C., Schafe, G. E., LeDoux, J. E., & Doyère, V. (2013). Detection of a temporal error triggers reconsolidation of amygdala-dependent memories. Current Biology, 23, 1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2013.01.053

Exton-McGuinness, M. T. J., Patton, R. C., Sacco, L. B., & Lee, J. L. C. (2014). Reconsolidation of a well-learned instrumental memory. Learning & Memory, 21, 468-477. doi: 10.1101/lm.035543.114

Forcato, C., Argibay, P. F., Pedreira, M. E., & Maldonado, H. (2009). Human reconsolidation does not always occur when a memory is retrieved: The relevance of the reminder structure. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 91, 50-57. doi:10.1016/j.nlm.2008.09.011

Forcato, C., Bavassi, L., De Pino, G., Fernández, R. S., Villarreal, M. F., & Pedreira, M. E. (2016). Differential left hippocampal activation during retrieval with different types of reminders: An fMRI study of the reconsolidation process. PLoS ONE 11(3):e0151381. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0151381

Forcato, C., Burgos, V. L., Argibay, P. F., Molina, V. A., Pedreira, M. E., & Maldonado, H. (2007). Reconsolidation of declarative memory in humans. Learning & Memory, 14, 295-303. doi: 10.1101/lm.486107

Forcato, C., Rodríguez, M. L. C., Pedreira, M. E., & Maldonado, H. (2010). Reconsolidation in humans opens up declarative memory to the entrance of new information. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 93, 77-84. doi: 10.1016/j.nlm.2009.08.006

Frenkel, L., Maldonado, H., & Delorenzi, A. (2005). Memory strengthening by a real-life episode during reconsolidation: an outcome of water deprivation via brain angiotensin II. European Journal of Neuroscience, 22, 1757-1766. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2005.04373.x

Galluccio, L. (2005). Updating reactivated memories in infancy: I. Passive- and active-exposure effects. Developmental Psychobiology, 47, 1-17. doi: 10.1002/dev.20073

Jarome, T. J., Ferrara, N. C., Kwapis, J. L., & Helmstetter, F. J. (2015). Contextual information drives the reconsolidation-dependent updating of retrieved fear memories. Neuropsychopharmacology, 40, 3044-3052. doi: 10.1038/npp.2015.161

López, M. A., Santos, M. J., Cortasa, S., Fernández, R. S., Tano, M. C., & Pedreira, M. E. (2016). Different dimensions of the prediction error as a decisive factor for the triggering of the reconsolidation process. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 136, 210-219. doi: 10.1016/j.nlm.2016.10.016

Morris, R. G., Inglis, J., Ainge, J. A., Olverman, H. J., Tulloch, J., Dudai, Y., & Kelly, P. A. (2006). Memory reconsolidation: Sensitivity of spatial memory to inhibition of protein synthesis in dorsal hippocampus during encoding and retrieval. Neuron, 50, 479-489. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2006.04.012

Pedreira, M. E., Pérez-Cuesta, L. M., & Maldonado, H. (2004). Mismatch between what is expected and what actually occurs triggers memory reconsolidation or extinction. Learning & Memory, 11, 579-585. doi: 10.1101/lm.76904

Pérez-Cuesta, L. M., & Maldonado, H. (2009). Memory reconsolidation and extinction in the crab: Mutual exclusion or coexistence? Learning & Memory, 16, 714-721. doi: 10.1101/lm.1544609

Reichelt, A. C., Exton-McGuinness, M. T., & Lee, J. L. (2013). Ventral tegmental dopamine dysregulation prevents appetitive memory destabilisation. Journal of Neuroscience, 33, 14205­14210. doi: 10.1523/ JNEUROSCI.1614-13.2013

Rodriguez-Ortiz, C. J., De la Cruz, V., Gutierrez, R., & Bermidez-Rattoni, F. (2005). Protein synthesis underlies post-retrieval memory consolidation to a restricted degree only when updated information is obtained. Learning & Memory, 12, 533-537. doi: 10.1101/lm.94505

Rodriguez-Ortiz, C. J., Garcia-DeLaTorre, P., Benavidez, E., Ballesteros, M. A., & Bermudez-Rattoni, F. (2008). Intrahippocampal anisomycin infusions disrupt previously consolidated spatial memory only when memory is updated. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 89, 352-359. doi: 10.1016/j.nlm.2007.10.004

Rossato, J. I., Bevilaqua, L. R. M., Medina, J. H., Izquierdo, I., & Cammarota, M. (2006). Retrieval induces hippocampal-dependent reconsolidation of spatial memory. Learning & Memory, 13, 431-440. doi: 10.1101/lm.315206

Rossato, J. I., Bevilaqua, L. R. M., Myskiw, J. C., Medina, J. H., Izquierdo, I., & Cammarota, M. (2007). On the role of hippocampal protein synthesis in the consolidation and reconsolidation of object recognition memory. Learning & Memory, 14, 36-46. doi: 10.1101/lm.422607

Sevenster, D., Beckers, T., & Kindt, M. (2012). Retrieval per se is not sufficient to trigger reconsolidation of human fear memory. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 97, 338-45. doi: 10.1016/j.nlm.2012.01.009

Sevenster, D., Beckers, T., & Kindt, M. (2013). Prediction error governs pharmacologically induced amnesia for learned fear. Science, 339, 830-833. doi: 10.1126/science.1231357

Sevenster, D., Beckers, T., & Kindt, M. (2014). Prediction error demarcates the transition from retrieval, to reconsolidation, to new learning. Learning & Memory, 21, 580-584. doi: 10.1101/lm.035493.114

Winters, B. D., Tucci, M. C., & DaCosta-Furtado, M. (2009). Older and stronger object memories are selectively destabilized by reactivation in the presence of new information. Learning & Memory, 16, 545-553. doi: 10.1101/lm.1509909


 

Readings on
Memory Reconsolidation

 

Chapter 2 in Unlocking the Emotional Brain explains reconsolidation research findings, how reconsolidation works, and how this knowledge translates into a process that psychotherapists can guide for dispelling a wide range of symptoms at their emotional and neural roots. The rest of the book provides many case examples.

 

"A Primer on Memory Reconsolidation and Its Psychotherapeutic Use as a Core Process of Profound Change" is an article adapted from the book, Unlocking the Emotional Brain, and published in The Neuropsychotherapist.

 

For a short, introductory version of these concepts and research findings, see the January 2011 blog article, Reconsolidation:
A Universal, Integrative Framework for Highly Effective Psychotherapy
.

 

For a more rigorous, lengthy account of these concepts and research findings, see the peer-reviewed journal article, Memory Reconsolidation Understood and Misunderstood in the International Journal of Neuropsychotherapy.

 

The neural mechanisms that may correspond to Coherence Therapy’s process of change are described in detail in a series of three articles in the Journal of Constructivist Psychology:

 

Download three abstracts»
Download article 1»

Download article 2»

Download article 3»

 

Easy-reading articles in the Psychotherapy Networker on memory reconsolidation and how it is brought about in Coherence Therapy:

 

Unlocking the Emotional Brain: Is Memory Reconsolidation the Key to Transformation? »

 

The Brain's Rules for Change»

 

How a brain imaging study could help reveal the role of reconsolidation in Coherence Therapy: Download»

::